Saturday, February 27, 2010

INTRODUCTION TO INSIGHT MEDITATION 10

PERSONAL CONDUCT

As our insight deepens, we see more clearly the results of our actions — the peace that good intention, sincerity and clear-mindedness promote, and the trouble that confusion and carelessness create. It is this greater sensitivity, observing in particular the distress we cause ourselves and others, that often inspires us to want to live more wisely. For true peace of mind, it is indispensable that formal meditation be combined with a commitment to responsibility, and with care for oneself and others.

There is really nothing mysterious about the path of Insight. In the words of the Buddha, the way is simple: 'Do good, refrain from doing evil, and purify the mind'. It is a long-observed tradition, then, for people who engage in spiritual practice to place great importance on proper conduct. Many meditators undertake realistic moral vows — such as refraining from harming living beings, from careless use of sexuality, from using intoxicants (alcohol and drugs), and from gossip and other graceless speech habits — to help their own inner clarity, and perhaps gently encourage that of others.


(to be continued....)

INTRODUCTION TO INSIGHT MEDITATION (FROM 1 TO 9)


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Thursday, February 25, 2010

မဟာသတိပ႒ာနသုတ္ (ပါဠိေတာ္ျမန္မာျပန္)

Maha_Satipatthana_P&M_Book_2
ဆက္လက္ဖတ္ရႈရန္

Mahasatipatthana Sutta (9)

IV. Dhammanupassana (Contemplation on Dhammas)

v. Sacca Pabba (Section on Noble Truths)

d. Maggasacca Pabba
(Section on the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the cessation of Dukkha)

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha?

It is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right View (Samma-ditthi), Right Thought (Samma-sankappa), Right Speech (Samma-vaca), Right Action (Samma-kammanta), Right Livelihood (Samma-ajiva), Right Effort (Samma-vayama), Right Mindfulness (Samma-sati), and Right Concentration (Samma-samadhi).

And what, bhikkhus, is Right View? The understanding of dukkha; the understanding of the cause of dukkha; the understanding of the cessation of dukkha; the understanding of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha. This, bhikkhus, is called Right View.note104

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Thought? Thoughts directed to liberation from sensuality; thoughts free from ill-will; and thoughts free from cruelty. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Thought.note105

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Speech? Abstaining from lying, from tale-bearing,note106 from abusive speech, and from vain and unbeneficial talk.note107 This, bhikkhus, is called Right Speech.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Action? Abstaining from killing living beings,note108 from stealingnote109 and from wrongful indulgence in sense pleasures.note110 This, bhikkhus, is called Right Action.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Livelihood? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, the noble disciple completely abstains from a wrong way of livelihood and makes his living by a right means of livelihood. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Livelihood.note111

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Effort? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates an intention, makes effort, rouses energy, applies his mind, and strives ardently to prevent the arising of evil, unwholesome states of mind that have not yet arisen. He generates an intention, makes effort, rouses energy, applies his mind, and strives ardently to abandon evil, unwholesome states of mind that have arisen. He generates an intention, makes effort, rouses energy, applies his mind, and strives ardently to attain wholesome states of mind that have not yet arisen. He generates an intention, makes effort, rouses energy, applies his mind, and strives ardently to maintain the wholesome states of mind that have arisen, to prevent their lapsing, to increase them, to cause them to grow, and to completely develop them. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Effort.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Mindfulness? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the body as just the body with diligence, clear understanding, and mindfulness, thus keeping away covetousness and mental pain in the world; he dwells perceiving again and again feelings as just feelings with diligence, clear understanding and mindfulness, thus keeping away covetousness and mental pain in the world, he dwells perceiving again and again the mind as just the mind with diligence, clear understanding, and mindfulness, thus keeping away covetousness and mental pain in the world; he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas with diligence, clear understanding and mindfulness, thus keeping away covetousness and mental pain in the world. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Mindfulness.

And what, bhikkhus, is Right Concentration? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu being detached from sensual desire and unwholesome states attains and dwells in the first jhana which has vitakka and vicara; and rapture (piti) and sukha born of detachment (from the hindrances).note112 With the subsiding of vitakka and vicara, a bhikkhu attains and dwells in the second jhana, with internal tranquility and one-pointedness of mind, without vitakka and vicara, but with rapture and sukha born of concentration. Being without rapture, a bhikkhu dwells in equanimity with mindfulness and clear understanding, and experiences sukha in mind and body. He attains and dwells in the third jhana; that which causes a person who attains it to be praised by the Noble Ones note113 as one who has equanimity and mindfulness, one who abides in sukha. By becoming detached from both sukha and dukkha and by the previous cessation of gladness and mental pain, a bhikkhu attains and dwells in the fourth jhana, a state of pure mindfulness born of equanimity. This, bhikkhus, is called Right Concentration.

This, bhikkhus, is called the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha.

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in others; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in both himself and in others. He dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual appearing of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual dissolution of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again both the actual appearing and dissolution of dhammas with their causes.note114

To summarize, he is firmly mindful of the fact that only dhammas exist (not a soul, a self or I). That mindfulness is just for gaining insight (vipassana) and mindfulness progressively. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the Four Noble Truths as just the Four Noble Truths.

Indeed, bhikkhus, whosoever practises these four satipatthanas in this manner for seven years, one of two results is to be expected in him: Arahatship in this very existence, or if there yet be any trace of clinging, the state of an Anagami.note115

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus, whosoever practises these four satipatthanas in this manner for six years, five years, four years, three years, two years, or one year.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus, whosoever practises these four satipatthanas in this manner for seven months, one of two results is to be expected in him: Arahatship in this very existence, or if there yet be any trace of clinging, the state of an Anagami.

Let alone seven months, bhikkhus, whosoever practises these four satipatthanas in this manner for six months, five months, four months, three months, two months, one month, or half a month.

Let alone half a month, bhikkhus, whosoever practises these four satipatthanas in this manner for seven days, one of two results is to be expected in him: Arahatship in this very existence or if there yet be any trace of clinging, the state of an Anagami.

This is what I meant when I said: "Bhikkhus, this is the one and the only way for the purification (of the minds) of beings, for overcoming sorrow and lamentation, for the cessation of physical and mental pain, for attainment of the Noble Paths, and for the realization of Nibbana. That only way is the four satipatthanas".

This is what the Bhagava said. Delighted, the bhikkhus rejoice at the Bhagava's words.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

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Notes

104. Right View (samma ditthi) develops through several stages. At first one understands that good actions produce good results, and that bad actions produce bad results. Next, one understands the impermanent, unsatisfactory and soulless nature of conditioned phenomena which deepens the understanding of cause and effect so that only cause and effect are seen. The last stage is to understand the Four Noble Truths and to see that if the cause (craving) ceases the result (dukkha) will also cease.

105. If one has Right View then depending on that Right Thought (samma sankappa) will arise. Also if one has Right Thought then Right Speech (samma vaca) and Right Action (samma kammanta) will arise because one's actions are dependent on one's thoughts.

106. Tale bearing refers to taking stories from one person to another in order to create a split between those two people and also to make oneself liked by the second person, e.g. person A hears person B saying bad things about person C. Then A goes to C and tells him what B has said in order to create discord between B and C and to make C like A.

107. This refers to idle chatter or gossip that is of no benefit to anyone. Nowadays it is worth considering if this applies to reading and writing certain types of books.

108. Only the intentional killing of living beings is meant here and not unintentional killing such as accidentally stepping on an insect. Something is called a living being if it possesses consciousness and does not include plants, bacteria, amoebae, and viruses which according to Buddhism are without consciousness.

109. Stealing does not just mean simple theft but also includes smuggling, tax evasion, and using false weights or measures.

110. This refers to sexual misconduct (i.e. adultery, rape), drinking alcohol, and taking drugs.

111. This refers to obtaining one's livelihood by wrong speech or wrong action. It includes trading in weapons, in animals for slaughter, in slaves, in liquor, in drugs, and in poisons.

112. The word jhana comes from the root jha = to stare. Here it is used to refer to a degree of concentration in which the mind stares at an object with such concentration that one is unaware of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, or tactile objects. There are four types of jhanas mentioned here which are characterized or differentiated by the mental concomitants present in each. As mental concomitants of jhana, vitakka and vicara refer to the initial and sustained application of the mind to a single object. Just like a man first puts his hand on a shaking object and then keeps his hand on the shaking object, vitakka puts the mind on the object and vicara keeps the mind there. At this stage the mind is still not perfectly calm. In the second jhana the mind is so still that it stays on one object without any vitakka and vicara. Rapture (piti) is the same as the enlightenment factor of rapture (see Note 88). Sukha refers to ease and comfort of body and mind.

113. The Buddha and his enlightened disciples are Noble Ones (ariya).

114. The causes of the appearing of dukkha are ignorance of the Four Noble Truths, craving and kamma. The cause of the dissolution of dukkha is the Eightfold Noble Path. The cause of the appearing of craving is Feeling. The cause of the dissolution of craving is the Eightfold Noble Path. The cessation of dukkha, which is Nibbana, has no arising or passing away and is therefore not included here.

The path leading to the cessation of dukkha is of two kinds: supramundane (lokuttara) and mundane (lokiya). Both appear due to the four factors of stream entry. (i.e. associating with virtuous men, hearing the true Dhamma, wisely considering the Dhammas one has heard, and practising in accordance with that Dhamma). The lokuttara path cannot pass away once it has been attained but the lokiya path can pass away due to not wisely considering the Dhamma one has heard and not practising in accordance with that Dhamma.

115. An Anagami is an enlightened individual who has eradicated ditthi, vicikiccha, silabbataparamasa, issa, macchariya, kamaraga and patigha (see Note 82) and consequently at death will be reborn in the Pure Abode (Suddhavasa) where he will attain Arahatship. He is called a Non-returner because he will never be reborn again in the sensuous realm (kamaloka). This last section is meant to encourage the meditator with the knowledge that if he practises in a really diligent and consistent way in accordance with this sutta he can expect to attain the total eradication of greed, hatred and delusion, in this very life.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!

U Jotika and U Dhamminda
Migadavun Monastery
Ye Chan Oh Village
Maymyo, Burma


ဆက္လက္ဖတ္ရႈရန္

Mahasatipatthana Sutta (8)

IV. Dhammanupassana (Contemplation on Dhammas)

v. Sacca Pabba (Section on Noble Truths)

c. Nirodhasacca Pabba (Section on the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha)

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the cessation of dukkha? It is the complete extinction and cessation of this very craving, its abandoning and discarding, the liberation and detachment from it. Bhikkhus, when this craving is abandoned, where is it abandoned? When it ceases, where does it cease? When this craving is abandoned or ceases it does so in the delightful and pleasurable characteristics of the world.note103

What are the delightful and pleasurable characteristics of the world? In the world, the eye has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there (i.e. in the eyes); when it ceases, it ceases there. In the world, the ear…. In the world, the nose…. In the world, the tongue…. In the world, the body…. In the world, the mind has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, visible objects…. In the world, sounds…. In the world, odours…. In the world, tastes…. In the world, tactile objects…. In the world, dhammas have the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.
In the world, eye-consciousness…. In the world, ear-consciousness…. In the world, nose-consciousness…. In the world, tongue-consciousness…. In the world, body-consciousness…. In the world, mind-consciousness has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, eye-contact…. In the world, ear-contact…. In the world, nose-contact…. In the world, tongue-contact…. In the world, body-contact…. In the world, mind-contact has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, the feeling born of eye-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of ear-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of nose-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of tongue-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of mind-contact has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable.

When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.
In the world, the perception of visible objects…. In the world, the perception of sounds…. In the world, the perception of odours…. In the world, the perception of tastes…. In the world, the perception of tactile objects…. In the world, the perception of dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, the volition towards visible objects…. In the world, the volition towards sounds…. In the world, the volition towards odours…. In the world, the volition towards tastes…. In the world, the volition towards tactile objects…. in the world, the volition towards dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, the craving for visible objects…. In the world, the craving for sounds…. In the world, the craving for tastes…. In the world, the craving for tactile objects…. In the world, the craving for dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, the initial thinking about visible objects…. In the world, the initial thinking about sounds…. In the world, the initial thinking about odours…. In the world, the initial thinking about tastes…. In the world. the initial thinking about tactile objects…. In the world, the initial thinking about dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

In the world, the continued thinking about visible objects…. In the world, the continued thinking about sounds…. In the world, the continued thinking about odours…. In the world, the continued thinking about tastes…. In the world, the continued thinking about dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving is abandoned, it is abandoned there; when it ceases, it ceases there.

This, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the cessation of dukkha.

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Notes

103. It is important to note that craving arises and is discarded in the same place and that craving is removed by mindfully observing each object as it arises at one of the six sense doors and not by mere intellectual understanding.

ဆက္လက္ဖတ္ရႈရန္

Mahasatipatthana Sutta (7)

IV. Dhammanupassana (Contemplation on Dhammas)

v. Sacca Pabba (Section on Noble Truths)

b. Samudayasacca Pabba (Section on the Noble Truth of the Cause of Dukkha)

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of the cause of dukkha? It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth; and which together with delight and clinging, (accepts, enjoys, and) finds great delight in this or that (existence or sense pleasure that happens to arise). Namely, craving for sense pleasures (kamatanha), craving for (better) existences (bhavatanha), and craving for non-existence (vibhavatanha).note97

When this craving arises, bhikkhus, where does it arise? When it establishes itself,note98 where does it establish itself? When this craving arises and establishes itself, it does so in the delightful and pleasurable characteristics of the world.note99

What are the delightful and pleasurable characteristics of the world? In the world, the eye has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises, it arises there (i.e. in the eye); when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there. In the world, the ear…. In the world, the nose…. In the world, the tongue…. In the world, the body…. In the world, the mind has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.

In the world, visible objects…. In the world, sounds…. In the world, odours…. In the world, tastes…. In the world, tactile objects…. In the world, dhammas have the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.

In the world, eye-consciousness…. In the world, ear-consciousness…. In the world, nose-consciousness…. In the world, tongue-consciousness…. In the world, body-consciousness…. In the world, mind-consciousness has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.

In the world, eye-contact…. In the world, ear-contact…. In the world, nose-contact…. In the world, tongue-contact…. In the world, body-contact…. In the world, mind-contact has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.note100

In the world, the feeling born of eye-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of ear-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of nose-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of tongue-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of body-contact…. In the world, the feeling born of mind-contact has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.

In the world, the perception of visible objects…. In the world, the perception of sounds…. In the world, the perception of odours…. In the world, the perception of tastes…. In the world, the perception of tactile objects…. In the world, the perception of dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. Then this craving arises it arises there, when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.

In the world, the volition towards visible objects…. In the world, the volition towards sounds…. In the world, the volition towards odours…. In the world, the volition towards tastes…. In the world, the volition towards tactile objects…. In the world, the volition towards dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.note101

In the world, the craving for visible objects…. In the world, the craving for sounds…. In the world, the craving for odours…. In the world, the craving for tastes…. In the world, the craving for tactile objects….

In the world, the craving for dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.
In the world, the initial thinking about visible objects…. In the world, the initial thinking about sounds…. In the world, the initial thinking about odours…. In the world, the initial thinking about tastes…. In the world, the initial thinking about tactile objects…. In the world, the initial thinking about dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.note102

In the world, the continued thinking about visible objects…. In the world, the continued thinking about sounds…. In the world, the continued thinking about odours…. In the world, the continued thinking about tastes…. In the world, the continued thinking about tactile objects…. In the world, the continued thinking about dhammas has the characteristic of being delightful and pleasurable. When this craving arises it arises there; when it establishes itself, it establishes itself there.

This, bhikkhus, is called the Noble Truth of the cause of dukkha.

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Notes

97. The craving for pleasurable sights, sounds, smells, tastes and tactile objects is kamatanha. The craving to be born in any sensual; rupa or arupa worlds, and the attachment to rupa or arupa jhanas, and the craving associated with the belief in an eternal and indestructible Self or Soul are all included in the term bhavatanha. The craving that associated with the wrong view that at death one is annihilated and hence that there is no rebirth or results of good or bad actions is vibhavatanha.

98. The word establishes (nivisati) has two aspects. Firstly, the craving arises at that place and secondly because of happening again and again it establishes itself there so that it arises habitually whenever the same object is met or thought about.

99. The world (loka) refers to the five aggregates of clinging.

100. Contact (phassa) refers not to the contact of an object with the body but to the contact of an object with the mind. Thus, when an object, a sense base and consciousness appear together it is called contact.

101. Volition (cetana) is the mental concomitant that causes actions of body, speech, and mind.

102. Initial thinking (vitakka) searches for, introduces, and moves towards a new sensual object. Continued thinking (vicara) stays with the same object and repeatedly thinks about, ponders, and examines that object in greater detail. They have different meanings when they are associated with the jhanas, which are all free from craving.



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Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Mahasatipatthana Sutta (6)

IV. Dhammanupassana (Contemplation on Dhammas)

v. Sacca Pabba (Section on Noble Truths)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the Four Noble Truths as just the Four Noble Truths (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena). And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the Four Noble Truths as just the Four Noble Truths? Here, (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows as it really is, "This is dukkha"; he knows as it really is, "This is the cause of dukkha"; he knows as it really is, "This is the cessation of dukkha"; he knows as it really is, "This is the path leading to the cessation of dukkha.''

a. Dukkhasacca Pabba (Section on the Noble Truth of Dukkha)

And what, bhikkhus, is the Noble Truth of dukkha? Birth note93 is dukkha, ageing is also dukkha, death is also dukkha; sorrow, lamentation, physical pain, mental pain and anguish are also dukkha; to have to associate with those (persons or things) one dislikes is also dukkha; to be separated from those one loves or likes is also dukkha; wishing for what one cannot get is also dukkha; in short, the five aggregates of clinging are dukkha.note94

And what, bhikkhus, is birth (jati)? The birth, the being born, the origination, the conception, the springing into existence, the manifestation of the aggregates, and the acquisition of the sense-bases of beings in this or that class of beings - this, bhikkhus, is called birth.

And what, bhikkhus, is ageing (jara)? It is the ageing, the getting frail, the loss of teeth, the greying of hair, the wrinkling of skin; the failing of the vital force, the wearing out of the sense faculties of beings in this or that class of beings - this, bhikkhus, is called ageing.

And what, bhikkhus, is death (marana)? The departing and vanishing, the destruction, the disappearance, the death, the completion of the life span, the dissolution of the aggregates (khandha), the discarding of the body, and the destruction of the physical life-force of beings in this or that class of beings - this, bhikkhus, is called death.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow (soka)?note95 The sorrow, the act of sorrowing, the sorrowful state of mind, the inward sorrow and the inward overpowering sorrow that arise because of this or that loss (of relatives, or possessions) or this or that painful state that one experiences - this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And what, bhikkhus is lamentation (parideva)? The crying and lamenting, the act of crying and lamenting, and the state of crying and lamentation that arises because of this or that loss (of relatives, or possessions) or this or that painful state that one experiences - this bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And what, bhikkhus, is physical pain (dukkha)? The bodily pain and bodily unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily contact - this, bhikkhus, is called physical pain.

And what, bhikkhus, is mental pain (domanassa)? The pain in the mind and the unpleasantness in the mind, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental contact - this, bhikkhus, is called mental pain.

And what, bhikkhus, is anguish (upayasa)? The distress and anguish and the state of distress and anguish that arises because of this or that loss (of relatives, or possessions) or this or that painful state that one experiences - this, bhikkhus, is called anguish.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of having to associate with those (persons or things) one dislikes (appiyehi sampayogo dukkho)?

Having to meet, remain with, be in close contact, or intermingle, with sights, sounds, odours, tastes, tactile objects, and dhammas in this world which are undesirable, unpleasant or unenjoyable, or with those who desire one's disadvantage, loss, discomfort, or association with danger - this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of having to associate with those (persons or things) one dislikes.

And, bhikkhus, what is the dukkha of being separated from those one loves or likes (piyehi vippayogo dukkho)? Not being able to meet, remain with, be in close contact, or intermingle, with sights, sounds, odours, tastes, tactile objects, and dhammas in this world which are desirable, pleasant or enjoyable, or with mother or father or brothers or sisters or friends or companions or maternal and paternal relatives who desire one's advantage, benefit, comfort or freedom from danger - this, bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being separated from those one loves or likes.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of wishing for what one cannot get? Bhikkhus, in beings subject to birth and rebirth the wish arises: "Oh that we were not subject to birth and rebirth! Oh that birth and rebirth would not happen to us!" But this cannot happen by merely wishing. This is the dukkha of wishing for what one cannot get. Bhikkhus, in beings subject to ageing the wish arises: "Oh that we were not subject to ageing! Oh that ageing would not happen to us! " But this cannot happen merely by wishing. This also is the dukkha of wishing for what one cannot get. Bhikkhus, in beings subject to illness the wish arises: "Oh that we were not subject to illness! Oh that illness would not happen to us!" But this cannot happen merely by wishing. This also is the dukkha of wishing for what one cannot get. Bhikkhus, in beings subject to death the wish arises: "Oh that we were not subject to death! Oh that death would not happen to us!", But this cannot happen merely by wishing. This also is the dukkha of wishing for what one cannot get. Bhikkhus, in beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, physical pain, mental pain and anguish the wish arises: "Oh that we were not subject to sorrow, lamentation, physical pain, mental pain and anguish! Oh that sorrow, lamentation, physical pain, mental pain, and anguish would not happen to us!" But this cannot happen merely by wishing. This also is the dukkha of wishing for what one cannot get.note96

And what, bhikkhus, is (meant by) "In short, the five aggregates of clinging are dukkha"? They are the aggregate of corporeality, the aggregate of feeling, the aggregate of perception, the aggregate of mental formations, and the aggregate of consciousness. These, bhikkhus, are what is meant by "In short, the five aggregates of clinging are dukkha.''

Bhikkhus, this is called the Noble Truth of dukkha.

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Notes

93. Birth (jati) refers to both birth and repeated rebirth.

94. Here dukkha does not just refer to painful feelings but has a wide range of meaning. Birth, ageing and death are dukkha because they are painful. Pleasant feelings are dukkha because they are subject to change. The rest of the five aggregates of clinging are dukkha because they are oppressed by ceaseless arising and dissolution.

95. Sorrow, lamentation and anguish are different intensities of mental pain that arise due to loss or painful states such as loss of a good reputation, the passing away of relatives or the loss of possessions through fire, flood, or theft. Sorrow is the weakest and is felt internally with little outward expression. Lamentation is more intense and results in outbursts of wailing and crying. Anguish is the most intense and although one cries and wails there is still deep inexpressible pain that makes one look exhausted and hopeless.

96. These things cannot be gained by wishing or prayer. They can only be gained by attaining the Noble Paths.

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Mahasatipatthana Sutta (5)

IV. Dhammanupassana (Contemplation on Dhammas)

i. Nivarana Pabba (Section on Hindrances)

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena)? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five hindrances (nivarana dhamma) as just the five hindrances note71 (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena).

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the five hindrances as just the five hindrances? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, while sense-desire (kamachanda) is present in him, a bhikkhu knows, "There is sense-desire present in me"; or while sense-desire is not present in him, he knows, "There is no sense-desire present in me". He also knows how the sense-desire which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the sense-desire that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded sense-desire will not arise in the future.note72

While ill-will (byapada) is present in him he knows, "There is ill-will present in me"; or while ill-will is not present in him, he knows, "There is no ill-will present in me." He also knows how the ill-will which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the ill-will which has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded ill-will will not arise in the future.note73

While sloth and torpor are present in him, he knows, "There are sloth and torpor present in me"; or while sloth and torpor are not present in him, he knows "There is no sloth and torpor present in me." He also knows how the sloth and torpor which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the sloth and torpor that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded sloth and torpor will not arise in the future.note74

While distraction and worry (uddhacca-kukkucca) are present in him, he knows, "There are distraction and worry present in me"; or while distraction and worry are not present in him, he knows, "There are no distraction and worry present in me." He knows how the distraction and worry which has not yet arisen comes to arise, he knows how the distraction and worry that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded distraction and worry will not arise in the future.note75

While doubt or wavering of the mind (vicikiccha) is present in him, he knows, "There is doubt or wavering of the mind present in me"; or while doubt or wavering of the mind is not present in him, he knows, "There is no doubt or wavering of mind present in me." He also knows how the doubt or wavering of mind which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the doubt or wavering of mind that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded doubt or wavering of mind will not arise in the future.note76

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in others; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in both himself and in others. He dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual appearing of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual dissolution of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again both the actual appearing and dissolution of dhammas with their causes.note77

To summarize, he is firmly mindful of the fact that only dhammas exist (not a soul, a self or I). That mindfulness is just for gaining insight (vipassana) and mindfulness progressively. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five hindrances as just the five hindrances.

ii. Khanda Pabba (Section on Aggregates)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five aggregates of clinging (upadanakkhandha)note78 as just the five aggregates of clinging (not mine, not I, not self but just as phenomena).

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the five aggregates of clinging as just the five aggregates of clinging?

Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu perceives thus: "This is the corporeal body (rupa); this is the cause and the actual appearing of the corporeal body; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of the corporeal body. This is feeling (vedana) this is the cause and the actual appearing of feeling; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of feeling. This is perception (sanna); this is the cause and the actual appearing of perception; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of perception. These are mental formations (sankhara); this is the cause and the actual appearing of mental formations; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of mental formations. This is consciousness (vinnana); this is the cause and the actual appearing of consciousness; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of consciousness."note79

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in others; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in both himself and others. He dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual appearing of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual dissolution of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again both the actual appearing and dissolution of dhammas with their causes.note80

To summarize, he is firmly mindful of the fact that only dhammas exist (not a soul, a self or I). That mindfulness is just for gaining insight (vipassana) and mindfulness progressively. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five aggregates of clinging as just the five aggregates of clinging.

iii. Ayatana Pabba (Section on Sense Bases)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the six internal and external sense bases (ayatana)note81 as just the six internal and external sense bases (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena). And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the six internal and external sense bases as just the six internal and external sense bases?

Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows the eye and the visible objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.note82

He knows the ear and sounds and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the nose and odours and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the tongue and tastes and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the body and tactile objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the mind and mind objects (dhamma) and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself note83…. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the six internal and external sense bases as just the six internal and external sense bases.

iv. Bojjhanga Pabba (Section on Enlightenment Factors)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the seven factors of enlightenment (bhojjanga) as just the seven factors of enlightenment (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena). And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the seven factors of enlightenment as just the seven factors of enlightenment?

Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, while the enlightenment factor of mindfulness (sati-sambojjhanga) note84 is present in him, a bhikkhu knows, "The enlightenment factor of mindfulness is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of mindfulness is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of mindfulness which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be.note85

While the enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena (dhammavicaya-bhojjanga)note86 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of effort (viriya-sambojjhanga)note87 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of effort is present in me", or while the enlightenment factor of effort is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of effort is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of effort which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of effort comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of rapture (piti-sambojjhanga)note88 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of rapture is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of rapture is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of rapture is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of rapture which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of rapture comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of tranquility (passadhi-sambojjhanga)note89 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of tranquility is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of tranquility is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of tranquility is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of tranquility which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of tranquility comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of concentration (samadhi-sambojjhanga)note90 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of concentration is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of concentration is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of concentration is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of concentration which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of equanimity (upekkha-sambojjhanga)note91 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of equanimity is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of equanimity is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of equanimity is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of equanimity which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfilment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be.

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himselfnote92…. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the seven factors of enlightenment as just the seven factors of enlightenment.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Notes

71. The five hindrances are unwholesome mental concomitants that confuse the mind and obstruct it from achieving wholesome states such as insight or jhana.

72. Sense desire is the craving for any of the five types of sense-objects (i.e. sights, sounds, smells, tastes and tactile objects). It arises due to unwise attention to the pleasant aspect of an object. It is discarded due to the wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness or soullessness or to the unpleasant aspect of an object. It is totally eradicated by the path of an Anagami (anagami magga).

73. Ill-will is the same as anger (see Note 57). It arises due to the unwise attention to the unpleasant aspect of an object. It is discarded due to wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the development of loving-kindness. It is totally eradicated by the path of Anagami.

74. Sloth and torpor refer to the state of indolence, dullness of mind and dullness of mental concomitants. They arise due to unwise attention to lack of interest, lazy stretching of the body, drowsiness after meals, and mental sluggishness. They are mental concomitants and do not refer to physical tiredness. They are discarded due to wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the development of energy and exertion. They are totally eradicated by the path of an Arahat (arahatta magga).

75. Distraction (uddhacca) refers to the agitated, restless, and unconcentrated mind. Worry (kukkucca) refers to worrying about past actions that one has or has not done. They arise due to unwise attention to the things that cause distraction and worry. They are discarded by wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the development of calmness of mind. Distraction is totally eradicated by the path of an Arahat. Worry is totally eradicated by the path of an Anagami.

76. Doubt or wavering refers to doubts such as "Is the Buddha really fully enlightened?"; "Does this practice really lead to the cessation of dukkha?"; "Have the disciples of the Buddha really attained enlightenment by this practice?"; "Is there a future life?"; Was there a past life?". Doubt or wavering arises due to unwise attention to things that cause doubt. It is discarded due to wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the Dhamma. It is totally eradicated by the path of a Sotapanna or Streamwinner (sotapatti magga).

77. The cause of the appearing of the hindrances is unwise attention (ayoniso manasikara). To cause of the dissolution of the hindrances is wise attention which removes them temporarily and the Four Noble Paths (ariyamagga) which permanently discards them (See also Notes 71 to 76).

78. The five aggregates of clinging are the objects depending on which the four types of clinging arise. The four types of clinging are the clinging to sense pleasures, the clinging to wrong views, the clinging to the belief that there are other paths and practices that can lead to happiness and liberation besides the Eightfold Noble Path, and the clinging to the view that there is a Self or Soul.

79. The word råpa refers to everything made of the four primary elements (i.e. the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element). But here it refers mostly to the corporeal body which arises together with the remaining four aggregates of clinging.
Feeling is described in Note 45.

Perception recognizes or perceives an object by means of a mark. It enables one to recognize colours such as blue, white or red. It can also wrongly recognize a rope as a snake.
Mental formations include faith, energy, intention, greed, hatred, delusion, non-greed, non-hatred, non-delusion, and mindfulness which prepare, arrange, or accomplish actions. There are fifty mental formations.

Consciousness is that which is aware of an object. Here it refers only to sensuous, råpa and aråpa types of consciousness and does not include path or fruition consciousness (magga-phala citta) which are not objects of clinging.

80. For the causes of the appearing and the dissolution of the corporeal body see Note 38; of feelings, perception and mental formations see Note 54; and of consciousness see Note 70.

81. Sense bases are those things which extend and expand the range of the mind. The six internal sense bases are the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. The six external sense bases are sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile objects and mental objects.

82. The fetters (samyojana) are those things which bind one to the rounds of rebirth. They are: 1. craving for sense pleasures (kamaraga); 2. anger (patigha), 3. pride or conceit (mana), 4. wrong view (ditthi) 5. doubt or wavering (vicikiccha), 6. the belief that there are other paths and practices that can lead to happiness and liberation besides the Eightfold Noble Path (silabbataparamasa), 7. craving for rebirth in the sensuous, råpa or aråpa worlds (bhavaraga), 8. envy or jealousy (issa), 9. meanness or stinginess (macchariya), 10. ignorance of the Four Noble Truths (avijja).
These fetters arise due to unwise attention which regards the sense bases as permanent, satisfactory and as Self or belonging to a Self. They are discarded temporarily by wise attention to the impermanent, unsatisfactory, and soulless characteristics of the sense bases. They are totally discarded by the four Noble Paths (i.e ditthi, vicikiccha, silabbataparamasa, issa, and macchariya by sotapatti magga; kamaraga and patigha by anagami magga; and the remaining fetters by arahatta magga).

83. For the causes of the appearing and dissolution of the physical sense bases see Note 38; of the mind see Note 70; and of mental objects see Note 54.

84. Mindfulness is that which watches what is occurring at the present moment in the body and mind. (Also see Note 11).

85. All the factors of enlightenment arise due to wise attention and come to complete development due to the path of an Arahat (arahatta magga).

86. This is the wisdom or insight that can differentiate the corporeal body and the mind and perceives both as impermanent, unsatisfactory and not-self.

87. This is the balanced mental effort that is generated while being mindful.

88. This is the interest and lack of boredom that arises due to seeing things as they really are. It is often associated with a feeling of lightness, lifting of the body or a thrill of joy that can make the hair on the body stand up.

89. With the arising of rapture the mind becomes calm and peaceful. This is called tranquility.

90. With the arising of tranquility the mind is not distracted and no longer wanders here and there but is aware of each object that appears in the mind. This is concentration.

91. With the arising of concentration the mind sees each object in a detached and calm way. It feels neither aversion to pain nor is overpowered by pleasure but it is calmly and effortlessly observant of the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness or soullessness of every constituent of body and mind. This is called equanimity.

92. The cause of the appearing of the seven factors of enlightenment is wise attention (yoniso-manasikara) which views phenomena as impermanent, unsatisfactory and not-self. The cause of the dissolution of the seven factors of enlightenment is unwise attention (ayoniso-manasikara) which views phenomena as permanent, satisfactory and as a soul or self.


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