Friday, August 20, 2010

The Four Kinds of Action (Kamma)

The Four Kinds of Action (Kamma)

According to the Buddha’s teaching, there are four kinds of action (Kamma).What are the four?

(1)There is dark action with dark result;

(2) There is bright action with bright result;

(3) There is dark and bright with dark and bright result; and

(4) There is action (Kamma) that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, action that leads to the destruction of Action.

First one is dark action with dark result. What is dark action with dark result? Here someone commits ten kinds of evil deed. Having committed ten kinds of evil deed, he reappears in unhappy worlds such as hell, Peta (ghost), animal. Here I would like to explain the ten kinds of evil deed. They are as follows:

(1) Killing any living beings;

(2) Stealing other persons’ belongings; and

(3) Making sexual misconduct.

These are called KÈyakamma (bodily action).

(4) Telling lie;

(5) Slandering;

(6) Telling harsh works; and

(7) Telling frivolous talk.

These are called VacÊkamma (verbal action).

(8)Greed;

(9)Hatred; and

(10) Wrong view.

These are called Manokamma (mental action). These ten kinds of evil action are called Dasaakusalakamma. If someone commits these ten kinds of evil deed (dark action), he or she will reap dark result. It is called dark action with dark result (Kanhakammakanhavipaka).

Second one is bright action with bright result. What is bright action with bright result? Here someone performs ten kinds of good deed. Having performed ten kinds of good deed, he reappears in happy worlds such as human, god, and brahma. Here I would like to explain the ten kinds of bright deed. They are as follows:

(1) Abstaining from killing any living beings;

(2) Abstaining from stealing other persons’ belongings; and

(3) Abstaining from making sexual misconduct.

These are called KÈyakamma (bodily action).

(4) Abstaining from telling lie;

(5) Abstaining from slandering;

(6) Abstaining from telling harsh works; and

(7) Abstaining from telling frivolous talk.

These are called VacÊkamma (verbal action).

(8)Non-greed;

(9)Non-hatred; and

(10) Right view.

These are called Manokamma (mental action). These ten kinds of good action are called Dasakusalakamma. If someone performs these ten kinds of good deed (bright action), he or she will reap bright result. It is called bright action with bright result (Sukkakammasukkavipaka).

Third one is dark and bright action ( Kanhasukkakamma) with dark and bright result (Kanhasukkavipaka). Here one sometimes generates the ten kinds of evil deed and the ten kinds of the good deeds. So he or she feels pain and happiness because he did action that is both bad deeds and evil deeds. For example, during the time of the Buddha, there was a certain lay man. He killed the animals by daytime and with self-control abstained at nights. For that action (kamma) that is both dark kamma( evil deed) and bright kamma( good deed), during the daytime, the dogs that had just been driven back, ran up on all sides to devour me but enjoyed the gods’ happiness.

The final one is Magga Action that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result and leads to the destruction of actions. It is right. Catumaggakamma can totally remove good deed which a person can be attained to happy planes, such as human, god and Brahma and evil deed that a person can be got to unhappy planes namely ghost, animal and hell. A person who wants to get Catumaggakamma (path-action) must practice meditation.

According to the Buddha’s teaching, there are two kinds of BhÈvanÈ: Samatha bhÈvanÈ (concentration meditation) and VipassanÈ bhÈvanÈ (insight meditation). Here Samatha bhÈvanÈ means observing breathing in and breathing out before one practices meditation. After fifteen minutes, when he or she focuses the single object of meditation, he or she can go to meditation. Here VipassanÈ bhÈvanÈ means noticing five aggregates to be breath with the Mundane Fivefold Path (VipassanÈamagga) to breathe, that is, one should observe the arising and disappearing of your five aggregates with VipassanÈmagga. In Vipassana practice the VipassanÈmagga functions as the next following consciousness (insight knowledge) which observes the perishing of the previous one, called Anicca (Impermanence). In this process, the preceding Anicca and the subsequent Magga go on concurrently without allowing any defilement (Kilesa) to creep in between them. It is the technique of killing the cause in order to prevent the effect. As the meditator keeps on meditating on the arising and perishing of the five aggregates* (Khandha), he gradually attains the two highly developed stages of VipassanÈ knowledge, namely, YathÈbhutaÒÈÓa (Knowledge according to reality) and NibbindaÒÈÓa (Knowledge of disgust); and eventually he gains the MaggaÒÈÓa (Path knowledge). ArahattamaggaÒÈÓa can remove dark action (evil deed) and bright action (good deed). Thus, meditator can free from 31 planes which mingle with pain and happiness and attain NibbÈna which is free from various kinds of suffering. That is why I admonish all of you “Please do the last one (Action that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result and leads to the destruction of actions (good action and bad action) that mingle pain and happiness)”.

May you get the last one (Catumaggakamma) which can destruct bad action and good action that can cause to attain 31 planes!


With Infinite Metta
Yours in Dhamma

Ashin Javana
University of Pune, Pune City, India

http://www.ashinjavana.blogspot.com/

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