Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Mahasatipatthana Sutta (5)

IV. Dhammanupassana (Contemplation on Dhammas)

i. Nivarana Pabba (Section on Hindrances)

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena)? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five hindrances (nivarana dhamma) as just the five hindrances note71 (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena).

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the five hindrances as just the five hindrances? Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, while sense-desire (kamachanda) is present in him, a bhikkhu knows, "There is sense-desire present in me"; or while sense-desire is not present in him, he knows, "There is no sense-desire present in me". He also knows how the sense-desire which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the sense-desire that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded sense-desire will not arise in the future.note72

While ill-will (byapada) is present in him he knows, "There is ill-will present in me"; or while ill-will is not present in him, he knows, "There is no ill-will present in me." He also knows how the ill-will which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the ill-will which has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded ill-will will not arise in the future.note73

While sloth and torpor are present in him, he knows, "There are sloth and torpor present in me"; or while sloth and torpor are not present in him, he knows "There is no sloth and torpor present in me." He also knows how the sloth and torpor which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the sloth and torpor that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded sloth and torpor will not arise in the future.note74

While distraction and worry (uddhacca-kukkucca) are present in him, he knows, "There are distraction and worry present in me"; or while distraction and worry are not present in him, he knows, "There are no distraction and worry present in me." He knows how the distraction and worry which has not yet arisen comes to arise, he knows how the distraction and worry that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded distraction and worry will not arise in the future.note75

While doubt or wavering of the mind (vicikiccha) is present in him, he knows, "There is doubt or wavering of the mind present in me"; or while doubt or wavering of the mind is not present in him, he knows, "There is no doubt or wavering of mind present in me." He also knows how the doubt or wavering of mind which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the doubt or wavering of mind that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded doubt or wavering of mind will not arise in the future.note76

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in others; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in both himself and in others. He dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual appearing of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual dissolution of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again both the actual appearing and dissolution of dhammas with their causes.note77

To summarize, he is firmly mindful of the fact that only dhammas exist (not a soul, a self or I). That mindfulness is just for gaining insight (vipassana) and mindfulness progressively. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five hindrances as just the five hindrances.

ii. Khanda Pabba (Section on Aggregates)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five aggregates of clinging (upadanakkhandha)note78 as just the five aggregates of clinging (not mine, not I, not self but just as phenomena).

And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the five aggregates of clinging as just the five aggregates of clinging?

Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu perceives thus: "This is the corporeal body (rupa); this is the cause and the actual appearing of the corporeal body; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of the corporeal body. This is feeling (vedana) this is the cause and the actual appearing of feeling; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of feeling. This is perception (sanna); this is the cause and the actual appearing of perception; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of perception. These are mental formations (sankhara); this is the cause and the actual appearing of mental formations; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of mental formations. This is consciousness (vinnana); this is the cause and the actual appearing of consciousness; this is the cause and the actual dissolution of consciousness."note79

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in others; or he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas in both himself and others. He dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual appearing of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again the cause and the actual dissolution of dhammas; or he dwells perceiving again and again both the actual appearing and dissolution of dhammas with their causes.note80

To summarize, he is firmly mindful of the fact that only dhammas exist (not a soul, a self or I). That mindfulness is just for gaining insight (vipassana) and mindfulness progressively. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the five aggregates of clinging as just the five aggregates of clinging.

iii. Ayatana Pabba (Section on Sense Bases)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the six internal and external sense bases (ayatana)note81 as just the six internal and external sense bases (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena). And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the six internal and external sense bases as just the six internal and external sense bases?

Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, a bhikkhu knows the eye and the visible objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.note82

He knows the ear and sounds and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the nose and odours and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the tongue and tastes and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the body and tactile objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

He knows the mind and mind objects (dhamma) and the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also knows how the fetter which has not yet arisen comes to arise; he knows how the fetter that has arisen comes to be discarded; and he knows how the discarded fetter will not arise in the future.

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himself note83…. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the six internal and external sense bases as just the six internal and external sense bases.

iv. Bojjhanga Pabba (Section on Enlightenment Factors)

And again, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the seven factors of enlightenment (bhojjanga) as just the seven factors of enlightenment (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena). And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell perceiving again and again the seven factors of enlightenment as just the seven factors of enlightenment?

Here (in this teaching), bhikkhus, while the enlightenment factor of mindfulness (sati-sambojjhanga) note84 is present in him, a bhikkhu knows, "The enlightenment factor of mindfulness is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of mindfulness is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of mindfulness which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be.note85

While the enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena (dhammavicaya-bhojjanga)note86 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of investigation of phenomena comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of effort (viriya-sambojjhanga)note87 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of effort is present in me", or while the enlightenment factor of effort is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of effort is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of effort which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of effort comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of rapture (piti-sambojjhanga)note88 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of rapture is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of rapture is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of rapture is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of rapture which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of rapture comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of tranquility (passadhi-sambojjhanga)note89 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of tranquility is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of tranquility is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of tranquility is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of tranquility which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of tranquility comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of concentration (samadhi-sambojjhanga)note90 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of concentration is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of concentration is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of concentration is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of concentration which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfillment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be.

While the enlightenment factor of equanimity (upekkha-sambojjhanga)note91 is present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of equanimity is present in me"; or while the enlightenment factor of equanimity is not present in him, he knows, "The enlightenment factor of equanimity is not present in me." He also knows how the enlightenment factor of equanimity which has not yet arisen comes to arise; and he knows how the complete fulfilment in developing the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be.

Thus he dwells perceiving again and again dhammas as just dhammas (not mine, not I, not self, but just as phenomena) in himselfnote92…. Being detached from craving and wrong views he dwells without clinging to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, in this way a bhikkhu dwells perceiving again and again the seven factors of enlightenment as just the seven factors of enlightenment.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Notes

71. The five hindrances are unwholesome mental concomitants that confuse the mind and obstruct it from achieving wholesome states such as insight or jhana.

72. Sense desire is the craving for any of the five types of sense-objects (i.e. sights, sounds, smells, tastes and tactile objects). It arises due to unwise attention to the pleasant aspect of an object. It is discarded due to the wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness or soullessness or to the unpleasant aspect of an object. It is totally eradicated by the path of an Anagami (anagami magga).

73. Ill-will is the same as anger (see Note 57). It arises due to the unwise attention to the unpleasant aspect of an object. It is discarded due to wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the development of loving-kindness. It is totally eradicated by the path of Anagami.

74. Sloth and torpor refer to the state of indolence, dullness of mind and dullness of mental concomitants. They arise due to unwise attention to lack of interest, lazy stretching of the body, drowsiness after meals, and mental sluggishness. They are mental concomitants and do not refer to physical tiredness. They are discarded due to wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the development of energy and exertion. They are totally eradicated by the path of an Arahat (arahatta magga).

75. Distraction (uddhacca) refers to the agitated, restless, and unconcentrated mind. Worry (kukkucca) refers to worrying about past actions that one has or has not done. They arise due to unwise attention to the things that cause distraction and worry. They are discarded by wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the development of calmness of mind. Distraction is totally eradicated by the path of an Arahat. Worry is totally eradicated by the path of an Anagami.

76. Doubt or wavering refers to doubts such as "Is the Buddha really fully enlightened?"; "Does this practice really lead to the cessation of dukkha?"; "Have the disciples of the Buddha really attained enlightenment by this practice?"; "Is there a future life?"; Was there a past life?". Doubt or wavering arises due to unwise attention to things that cause doubt. It is discarded due to wise attention to the perception of either impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or soullessness or to the Dhamma. It is totally eradicated by the path of a Sotapanna or Streamwinner (sotapatti magga).

77. The cause of the appearing of the hindrances is unwise attention (ayoniso manasikara). To cause of the dissolution of the hindrances is wise attention which removes them temporarily and the Four Noble Paths (ariyamagga) which permanently discards them (See also Notes 71 to 76).

78. The five aggregates of clinging are the objects depending on which the four types of clinging arise. The four types of clinging are the clinging to sense pleasures, the clinging to wrong views, the clinging to the belief that there are other paths and practices that can lead to happiness and liberation besides the Eightfold Noble Path, and the clinging to the view that there is a Self or Soul.

79. The word råpa refers to everything made of the four primary elements (i.e. the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element). But here it refers mostly to the corporeal body which arises together with the remaining four aggregates of clinging.
Feeling is described in Note 45.

Perception recognizes or perceives an object by means of a mark. It enables one to recognize colours such as blue, white or red. It can also wrongly recognize a rope as a snake.
Mental formations include faith, energy, intention, greed, hatred, delusion, non-greed, non-hatred, non-delusion, and mindfulness which prepare, arrange, or accomplish actions. There are fifty mental formations.

Consciousness is that which is aware of an object. Here it refers only to sensuous, råpa and aråpa types of consciousness and does not include path or fruition consciousness (magga-phala citta) which are not objects of clinging.

80. For the causes of the appearing and the dissolution of the corporeal body see Note 38; of feelings, perception and mental formations see Note 54; and of consciousness see Note 70.

81. Sense bases are those things which extend and expand the range of the mind. The six internal sense bases are the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. The six external sense bases are sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile objects and mental objects.

82. The fetters (samyojana) are those things which bind one to the rounds of rebirth. They are: 1. craving for sense pleasures (kamaraga); 2. anger (patigha), 3. pride or conceit (mana), 4. wrong view (ditthi) 5. doubt or wavering (vicikiccha), 6. the belief that there are other paths and practices that can lead to happiness and liberation besides the Eightfold Noble Path (silabbataparamasa), 7. craving for rebirth in the sensuous, råpa or aråpa worlds (bhavaraga), 8. envy or jealousy (issa), 9. meanness or stinginess (macchariya), 10. ignorance of the Four Noble Truths (avijja).
These fetters arise due to unwise attention which regards the sense bases as permanent, satisfactory and as Self or belonging to a Self. They are discarded temporarily by wise attention to the impermanent, unsatisfactory, and soulless characteristics of the sense bases. They are totally discarded by the four Noble Paths (i.e ditthi, vicikiccha, silabbataparamasa, issa, and macchariya by sotapatti magga; kamaraga and patigha by anagami magga; and the remaining fetters by arahatta magga).

83. For the causes of the appearing and dissolution of the physical sense bases see Note 38; of the mind see Note 70; and of mental objects see Note 54.

84. Mindfulness is that which watches what is occurring at the present moment in the body and mind. (Also see Note 11).

85. All the factors of enlightenment arise due to wise attention and come to complete development due to the path of an Arahat (arahatta magga).

86. This is the wisdom or insight that can differentiate the corporeal body and the mind and perceives both as impermanent, unsatisfactory and not-self.

87. This is the balanced mental effort that is generated while being mindful.

88. This is the interest and lack of boredom that arises due to seeing things as they really are. It is often associated with a feeling of lightness, lifting of the body or a thrill of joy that can make the hair on the body stand up.

89. With the arising of rapture the mind becomes calm and peaceful. This is called tranquility.

90. With the arising of tranquility the mind is not distracted and no longer wanders here and there but is aware of each object that appears in the mind. This is concentration.

91. With the arising of concentration the mind sees each object in a detached and calm way. It feels neither aversion to pain nor is overpowered by pleasure but it is calmly and effortlessly observant of the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness or soullessness of every constituent of body and mind. This is called equanimity.

92. The cause of the appearing of the seven factors of enlightenment is wise attention (yoniso-manasikara) which views phenomena as impermanent, unsatisfactory and not-self. The cause of the dissolution of the seven factors of enlightenment is unwise attention (ayoniso-manasikara) which views phenomena as permanent, satisfactory and as a soul or self.

No comments:

Post a Comment